i'm not asking for hard data, though. a lot of the relevant data is likely already available. i'm just asking for the basis on which the data should be interpreted to determine if the hypothesis is true or false. in other words, if there is a way to distinguish which designs (as in which possible universal parameters) are more in need of a designer, then i'd like to see the objective basis on which we can make that distinction. that's not all or nothing. it's the next logical step, as far as i can see.