Glycocyamine

Discussion in 'Health & Fitness' started by CH|CO., May 16, 2006.

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  1. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    The following article is borrowed from Paul Cribb and should serve as a kickoff to the discussion. I invite all informed, intelligent opinions on the matter.

    Glycocyamine – Is it a "Creatine-Enhancer?"

    by Paul Cribb, B.H.Sci HMS
    AST Director of Research

    You many have read about a new compound called glycocyamine in the muscle magazines. Some supplement marketers are selling this product as a creatine enhancer.

    What is Glycocyamine?


    Glycocyamine is the intermediate step of creatine synthesis in the liver. It is often called guanidinoacetate. The first step in creatine synthesis occurs with the transfer of the amidino group of arginine to glycine to yield ornithine and guanidinoacetate via L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase.[1]

    Because of this, glycocyamine (guanidinoacetate) is often used in medical research as a marker for alterations in creatine metabolism and an indicator of conditions such as arginine-glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiencies.[2,3]

    A reduction of guanidinoacetic acid in body fluids is desired for GAMT deficiency (an inborn error of creatine biosynthesis). These diseases are characterized by creatine depletion and accumulation of guanidinoacetate in the brain.[4]

    Glycocyamine as a Supplement.


    There are no direct studies on glycocyamine as a performance enhancing supplement or a creatine enhancer. Even more important to athletes, there is no theoretical research that even remotely suggests glycocyamine might enhance muscle growth or the effectiveness of creatine supplementation.

    One study has examined the effects of supplementing with glycocyamine and creatine on physiological plasma homocysteine levels in rats.[5] It’s from this research that marketers of glycocyamine supplements seem to be drawing their “science-based” sales pitch on glycocyamine.

    A number of studies have confirmed a relationship between an increased plasma concentration of homocysteine and the development of cardiovascular disease. Even a small increase in circulating homocysteine increases coronary artery disease risk by 60% for men and 80% for women.[6] Supplementation with creatine is suspected to decrease homocysteine levels.[7]

    Because the methylation of guanidinoacetate to creatine via consumes more S-adenosylmethionine than all other methylation reactions combined, the researchers behind the rat study hypothesized that guanidinoacetate and creatine supplementation may have opposite effects on homocysteine levels. Results showed they did.[5] Creatine supplementation was shown to decrease liver homocysteine levels, thus substantiating the possibility of creatine as a supplement that may help people avoid cardiovascular disease. However, guanidinoacetate supplementation was shown to increase homocysteine levels. This is not a good thing if you want to reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease.[6]

    Would glycocyamine be effective for bodybuilders?

    To provide a theoretical answer this question, we must look at glycocyamine’s role in metabolism and the role of creatine supplementation. Firstly, remember that glycocyamine is an intermediate involved in creatine synthesis within the liver. Without the presence of supplementation the body only synthesizes a small amount of creatine (less than 2-grams) per day. However, from the research it is clear that creatine supplementation reduces the body’s need to synthesize creatine, therefore the role of glycocyamine would be virtually eliminated.[7]

    Secondly, compare this to regular doses that bodybuilders supplement (5-20-grams per day). Glycocyamine has no biochemical role what so ever in creatine supplementation and accumulation in muscle. Therefore you can start to understand why glycocyamine would be fairly useless supplement for bodybuilders.

    Finally, as muscle cells cannot manufacture creatine, any attempt to increase muscle glycocyamine content via supplementation in an effort to help increase creatine stores would obviously be useless. Also, creatine relies on a highly selective cell transporter, I can’t see how a non-insulin-stimulating compound like glycocyamine could enhance creatine uptake in muscle.

    The bottom line . . .

    Guanidinoacetate/glycocyamine’s role in the small amount of creatine synthesized by the body has nothing to do with creatine supplementation. Promoting glycocyamine as a supplement that enhances the effects of creatine supplementation is completely without practical or theoretical biological evidence.
    test
  2. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    While at present there is zero research on guanidinoacetate/glycocyamine’s effect on muscle growth or creatine supplementation, from a theoretical perspective, as I have shown you, I can’t see how glycocyamine supplementation would enhance the effectiveness of creatine supplementation.

    It’s becoming commonplace in the supplement industry for marketers to select a little known obscure metabolite from biochemistry (it doesn't matter if the compound is completely irrelevant to bodybuilding), and hype it as a new “magic muscle building catalyst”. This seems to occur because supplement marketers are all too aware that bodybuilders are demanding science-based products.

    The problem with this unscrupulous marketing approach is that it’s very difficult for anyone without a biochemistry major to decipher the “science” behind these bogus products (even then, most acedemics still can’t see through the smoke screen). What you can do as a consumer is ask to be provided with the full reports on the research cited. Ask for the clear facts and don’t be intimidated or impressed by scientific marketing spin.

    From a research and theoretically-based perspective, the suggestion that glycocyamine is a creatine-enhancing supplement is at present, completely unfounded.

    References:


    1. Allain, P, LeBouil A, Cordillet E, LeQuay L, Bagheri H, and Montastruc JL. Sulfate and cysteine levels in the plasma of patients with Parkinson's Disease. Neurotoxicol 16: 527–530, 1995.

    2. Carducci C, Birarelli M, Leuzzi V, Carducci C, Battini R, Cioni G, Antonozzi I Clin Chem 2002 Oct;48(10):1772-8. Guanidinoacetate and creatine plus creatinine assessment in physiologic fluids: an effective diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencies. Clin Chem 2002 Oct; 48(10):1772–8.

    3. Al Banchaabouchi M, Marescau B, Van Marck E, D'hooge R, De Deyn PP. Long-term effect of partial nephrectomy on biological parameters, kidney histology, and guanidino compound levels in mice. Metabolism 2001 Dec; 50(12):1418-25.

    4. Schulze A, Ebinger F, Rating D, Mayatepek E. Improving treatment of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: reduction of guanidinoacetic acid in body fluids by arginine restriction and ornithine supplementation. Mol Genet Metab 2001 Dec;74(4):413-9.

    5. Lori M. Stead, Keegan P. Au, René L. Jacobs, Margaret E. Brosnan, and John T. Brosnan. Methylation demand and homocysteine metabolism: effects of dietary provision of creatine and guanidinoacetate. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281: E1095–E1100, 2001

    6. Refsum, H, Ueland PM, Nygård O, and Vollset SE. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. Annu Rev Med 49: 31-62, 1998.

    7. M. F. McCarty. Supplemental creatine may decrease serum homocysteine and abolish the homocysteine `gender gap' by suppressing endogenous creatine synthesis. Med Hypotheses. Jan; 56(1): 5-7,2001.
    test
  3. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    Products containing this ingredient include but are not limited to:
    Dymatize Energized Xpand,
    Sportslab PlasmaVol,
    Legal Gear Creator G2,
    SNS CVM Xtreme,
    BSN No-Xplode,
    SAN V12,
    Thermolife Xplode,
    ISS Research Satur8,
    Syntrax Swolen,
    Swole V3.
    test
  4. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    make sure what you put in your body.

    thats why its just good 2 stick with the basics and a healthly diet
    test
  5. Axel Foley

    Axel Foley Hannibal+Gaddafi+AK-47

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    Aminos and chemicals and shit are still confusing to me,I'm still trying to figure alot of shit out,I try to research stuff before I supplement with it,but I geta headache from trying to absorb all the facts and stuff.
    test
  6. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    what are you taking..


    I recommend



    NOW ADAM - best multi vita IMO
    Xceed - on days preworkout creatine/no2
    Prolab Creatine Mono - off days
    Xtend - pre, during, post recovery IMO
    ON 100% Whey - best protein IMO
    Fish Oil
    CoQ-10
    test
  7. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    go to bodybuilding dot com and run a search on those products....


    BB dot com is the best place to but shit like that anyways
    test
  8. Axel Foley

    Axel Foley Hannibal+Gaddafi+AK-47

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    I take fish oil,but pure Salmon instead of regular for my EFAs,NOW ADAM I heard is the best,I gotta finish taking up these Centrums I bought in bulk first before I get another multi,I took Co enzyme Q10 in the past,it did nothing for me really,I still don't get why that's mentioned by bodybuilders,it's an anti-oxidant usually used to strenghten the heart,it's expenisive as hell to,sometimes you can get a good price though.For protein I drink Optimum Whey,soon as I'm done I'm going to buy some generic bulk protein,I don't really care about the taste,does'nt bother me that much.I don't really fuck with Creatine,never taken it before,I'm gonna look into that.

    My supplements are pretty standard shit,nothing to fancy,simple basics.And BB.com is a great site,I read shit on there every chance I get,there prices are good to,but if you look around you can get cheaper in some cases.
    test
  9. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    when it comes to the protein its not about the taste.. its about the quality of the protein itself..


    stick to ON trust me... and it aint that bad in price.


    look into Xceed 4 creatine.. its a good price... taste good and the best creatine/no2 IMO... do a search on it @ BB
    test
  10. Purple Haze

    Purple Haze pop warner hof

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    Chico is hood.

    You put this shit in the cocaine chico?
    test
  11. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    i cut coke with no-xplode and tell em this shit just came from Peru.
    test
  12. CH|CO.

    CH|CO. is that chico.

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    Brrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr.
    test
  13. dlbiininja

    dlbiininja The Hip Hop Poet.

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    lol. hell must say i'm leery of supps. hell tend to eat alot and i think i have the majority of my dietary needs covered.
    tried a couple of weight gainers, l carnintine once for a 6 month period yea as if i really needed it. and hmm some other fat burners at one point and hmm what was it. i think that was it. hell. talk about having a hard time finding space to put in all in sshheessh stomach can only hold so much.
    test
  14. MagicDonJuan

    MagicDonJuan Active Member

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    ahah

    i didn't read the article ehh im lazy
    so what will this do to me
    I use no xplode
    test
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