Legacy Audio samples: "Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos" (1989) (file info) — play in browser (beta) from It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back Problems playing the files? See media help. Public Enemy were pioneers in many ways. Some of Terminator X's most innovative scratching tricks can be heard on the song "Rebel Without a Pause". The Bomb Squad offered up a web of innovative samples and beats; Critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine declares that PE "brought in elements of free jazz, hard funk, even musique concrète, via their producing team, the Bomb Squad, creating a dense, ferocious sound unlike anything that came before."  PE revolutionized the rap world with their political, social and cultural consciousness, which infused itself into skilled and poetic rhymes with raucous sound collages as a foundation. Prior to PE, political rap was confined to a few tracks by Ice-T and KRS-One; PE were the first hiphop act to base their entire image around a political stance. With the success of Public Enemy, hip-hop was suddenly flooded with new artists that celebrated Afrocentric themes, such as Kool Moe Dee, Gang Starr, X Clan, Eric B & Rakim, Queen Latifah, the Jungle Brothers and A Tribe Called Quest.  They were the first rap-group to make extended world tours, which led to huge popularity and influence in Hip-Hop communities in Europe and Asia. They also changed the Internet's music distribution capability by being one of the first groups to release MP3 albums , a format virtually unknown at the time. Public Enemy helped to form and define the so-called "Rap-Rock" genre of music (heavy rock music spliced with hip hop) by collaborating with New York thrash metal outfit Anthrax in 1991. The single "Bring Tha Noize" was a mix of semi-militant "black power" lyrics, grinding guitars and sporadic humor. The two bands, cemented by a mutual respect and the personal friendship between Chuck D and his Anthrax counterpart Scott Ian, introduced a hitherto alien genre to rock fans, and the two seemingly disparate groups even toured together. Flavor Flav's pronouncement on stage that "They said this tour would never happen" (as heard on Anthrax's Live: The Island Years CD) has become something of a legend in both rock and rap circles. Members of the "Bomb Squad" produced or remixed works for other acts such as Bell Biv DeVoe, Ice Cube, Vanessa Williams, Sinéad O'Connor, Blue Magic, Peter Gabriel, LL Cool J, Paula Abdul, Jasmine Guy, Jody Watley, Eric B & Rakim, Third Bass, Big Daddy Kane, EPMD and Chaka Khan. According to Chuck, "We had tight dealings with MCA and were talking about taking three guys that were left over from New Edition and coming up with an album for them. The three happened to be Ricky Bell, Michael Bivins and Ronnie DeVoe, later to become "Bell Biv DeVoe." Ralph Tresvant had been slated to do a solo album for years. Bobby Brown had left New Edition and "blew up" in 1988 and Johnny Gill had just been recruited to come in, but Johnny Gill had come off a solo career and could always go back to that. At MCA, Hiram Hicks, who was their manager, and Lowell Silas, who was running the show, were like, "Yo, these kids were left out in the cold, can y'all come up with something for them." It was a task that Hank, Keith, Eric and I took on to try to put some kind of Hip-Hop flavored R&B sh-t down for them. Subsequently, what happened in the four weeks of December (1989) was that the bomb Squad knocked out a large piece of the production and arrangement on Bell Biv DeVoe's three million selling album, Poison. In January (1990), we knocked out Fear of A Black Planet in four weeks, and we knocked out Ice Cube's album AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted in four to five weeks in February."  They have also produced local talent such as Son of Bazerk, Young Black Teenagers, Kings of Pressure and True Mathematics and gave producer Kip Collins his start in the business. Origin of name Chuck D had put out a tape to promote WBAU (the radio station he was working at the time) and to fend off a local rapper who wanted to battle him. He called the tape Public Enemy #1 because he felt like he was being persecuted by people in the local scene. This was the first reference to the notion of a "Public Enemy" in any of Chuck D's songs. The single was created by Chuck D with a contribution by Flavor Flav, though this was before the group Public Enemy was officially assembled. Public Enemy is also the name of one of the first film noir gangster movies, a 1931 classic starring James Cagney. According to Chuck, The S1W, which stands for "Security of the First World", "represents that the Black man can be just as intelligent as he is strong. It stands for the fact that we're not Third World people, we're First World people; we're the original people (of the earth)."  On the track "Louder Than a Bomb", from It Takes A Nation Of Millions To Hold Us Back, Chuck D reveals that the D in his nickname stands for "dangerous". Controversy Several members of P.E. were also infamous for their alignment with the Nation of Islam and its leader, Minister Louis Farrakhan, whose remarks and speeches they have sampled along with Malcolm X's on several of their recordings. Professor Griff, after reading the book "The Secret Relationship between Blacks and Jews", published by the Historical Research Department of the Nation of Islam, elaborates on the Jewish role in the slave trade, Griff made what many perceived to be anti-Semitic remarks in an interview he had with David Mills of The Washington Times. However, according to Chuck D's book Fight The Power, after Griff cited several Jewish sources verifying his claim in a follow-up interview, Mills regretted writing the story and apologized to Griff. By then, however, it was too late. The story had resurfaced in a Village Voice article and gotten out of control. It resulted in Griff leaving Public Enemy and founding his own group, Last Asiatic Disciples, whose lyrics were even more politically and racially charged than Public Enemy's.. Chuck has stated in the songs "Bring the Noise" and "Don't Believe the Hype" that you should not judge people who you hear on the news in sound-bites like Farrakhan "until you hear the man." One of their singles was named "Swindler's Lust", twisting the title of Schindler's List. Upon release of the single, the group was condemned by the Anti-Defamation League, though the group and many of their fans defended themselves, saying that they were not trying to diminish the events of the Holocaust, but, rather draw a comparison between the events of the Holocaust and slavery. A verse of "Fight the Power" accuses Elvis Presley and John Wayne of being racists (Compare to MDC's "John Wayne Was A Nazi"). The remarks about Elvis aroused some controversy in both the white and black communities. Many black commentators used the controversy to bring up the racial issues raised by Elvis's career as a white superstar who was heavily influenced by black musical styles. Sister Souljah, a then little-known rapper and writer who had made guest appearances on several Public Enemy tracks, surprisingly became an issue in the 1992 Presidential campaign when Bill Clinton denounced her racial views during a debate.