Black History Month

Discussion in 'IntroSpectrum' started by BLACKANGEL, Feb 2, 2007.

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  1. BLACKANGEL

    BLACKANGEL Angelic Professor

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    I believe it has been a year or two since I have posted a Black History Month thread. So here you guys go...

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    Lucretia Coffin Mott (1793-1880) devoted her life to the abolition of slavery, women's rights, school and prison reforms, temperance, peace, and religious tolerance. Although a major figure in the reform movements of the nineteenth-century, Mott's importance has been under-estimated by the public and scholars until recently. With the placement of the Stanton-Mott-Anthony sculpture in the Capitol Rotunda in June 1997, and the sesquicentennial of the historic Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention of 1848, Mott's life is receiving renewed attention.

    The Lucretia Coffin Mott Papers Project aims to gather all existing letters to and from this early women's rights leader and will create a database of all existing correspondence. The volume of selected letters from Mott has been published by the University of Illinois Press. To purchase a copy call sales for UIP at 800-545-4703.

    The Lucretia Coffin Mott Papers project is one of many undertakings throughout the U.S. which preserve and distribute the correspondence, diaries, and speeches of significant American men and women. Created in 1978, the Association for Documentary Editing promotes documentary editing through the exchange of ideas among the community of scholars, editors, and other interested parties. Members of the ADE publish editions in history, literature, philosophy, science, and the arts in various forms: traditional print volumes, microform editions, and, most recently, electronic editions.
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  2. Leila Night

    Leila Night efrain,you're my one&only

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    Nice thread. Thanks.
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  3. BLACKANGEL

    BLACKANGEL Angelic Professor

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    The Black Mongols of China
    1st century

    Asia's first major encounter with black Mongols occurred around the first century. They converged on India, conquering all of the northwest sector, which is now the nation of Pakistan.

    In China they were called the "yeuh-chih." India referred to them as the "kusanas." Now known as the "black huns," they traveled as much as ninety miles per day. When they invaded Eastern Europe, they were called the "black tartars."

    James Brunson, an authority on the black racial presence in China, said, "These blacks referred to themselves as 'kara khitai' and would later take possession of the Steppe region, north of the Black Sea."
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  4. teq the decider

    teq the decider sexual predator

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    when can this blastid month be abolished? blacks have done some stuff, who hasnt? Having a black history month is counter productive anyway since it implies that black achievements will fade into obscurity if allowed to stand beside the contributions of other ethnic groups.
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  5. Leila Night

    Leila Night efrain,you're my one&only

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    hmmm... May is Asian history month. Although, I don't think that is the exact title of it.
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  6. BeEgEe

    BeEgEe El Warm Shot

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    now that, was insightful
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  7. BLACKANGEL

    BLACKANGEL Angelic Professor

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    [​IMG]

    Marcus Garvey
    PROVISIONAL PRESIDENT OF AFRICA" AND MESSIAH (1887-1940)

    MARCUS GARVEY, "Back-to-Africa" leader, was the most widely known of all the agitators for the rights of the Negro and one of the most phenomenal. Arriving in the United States poor and unknown, within four years he became the most talked-of black man in the United States and the West Indies, and perhaps in the world.

    He was born in Jamaica, West Indies, of very humble parents. His father was a breaker of stones on the roadway. He himself went to the denominational school and dreamed of doing great things. He read Plutarch and worshipped Napoleon. On Sundays he pumped the organ in the Wesleyan Methodist Church at St. Ann's Bay, of which his parents were members. Later Garvey became a Catholic.

    Leaving school at sixteen, he went to work as an apprentice in the printing plant of P. Austin Benjamin in Kingston. Six years later he was the foreman. In the meantime he had been organizing the printers of the city and soon afterward led them in a successful strike for better pay. An elocutionist also, he once won a first prize for his delivery of "Chatham on Liberty." Incited by this success, he began agitation for the political' rights of the blacks of the island, who, though in the majority, were of lower social caste than the mulattoes. He went also among the West Indian laborers who were recruited for work in the neighboring republics and urged them to demand more pay and better working conditions. He was arrested for this in Port Limon, Costa Rica.

    In 1911 he went to England, where he attended London University. He then visited the Continent and parts of North Africa, observing social conditions. In 1914 he returned to Jamaica and organized the Jamaica Improvement Association with himself as president and his first wife as secretary. Three years later he came to the United States with the intention of collecting funds for a school on the lines of Tuskegee Institute in Jamaica. But he stayed on in America. His first meeting was held in a Catholic hall in Harlem. The audience was small; his address was badly put together, and the response was weak. However, after he fell from the rostrum to the floor, it was said from hunger, he obtained a better hearing. From New York he traveled southward along the Atlantic seaboard to New Orleans.

    His addresses on the race problem aroused the Negroes until by many he came to be regarded as another Moses. In March 1917, he organized a movement, calling it the Universal Negro Improvement Association. He selected twelve disciples to assist him and announced that his aims were to establish a co-fraternity among Negroes the world over; to promote a spirit of love and pride; to assist in civilizing backward Africans; to establish schools and scholarships; and above all to found a strong Negro nation. As an organ for these aims, he founded a weekly newspaper, The Negro World. Contributions of from $1 to $25 were made by the thirteen persons at the first meeting. To build his Negro nation and carry out his program of "Africa for the Africans," he said that ships were necessary and he founded The Black Star Line. Factories were to be established m the United States the raw material of Africa and the West Indies was to be brought to America, manufactured there, and shipped back to those lands. The ships were also to be used to settle Negroes of the New World in Africa.

    His program received wide publicity in the white press and was not long in running afoul of the ideals of most of the American Negro leaders, who declared it was sabotaging the fight here at home. This was all the more so when some of the most persistent enemies of the Negro hailed the Back-to-Africa program. Of course, these enemies knew that most Negroes would not be going to Africa, but the program shifted attention from injustices here at home and focused hopes for relief on Africa.
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  8. BLACKANGEL

    BLACKANGEL Angelic Professor

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    The Cotton Club was a famous night club in New York City that operated during and after Prohibition. While the club featured many of the greatest African American entertainers of the era, such as Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong, and Ethel Waters, it generally denied admission to blacks. During its heyday, it served as a chic meeting spot in the heart of Harlem, featuring regular "Celebrity Nights" on Sundays, at which celebrities such as Jimmy Durante, George Gershwin, Al Jolson, Mae West, Irving Berlin, Moss Hart, New York mayor Jimmy Walker and other luminaries would appear.

    Heavyweight champion Jack Johnson opened the Club Deluxe at 142nd Street and Lenox Avenue in Harlem in 1920. Owney Madden, a prominent bootlegger and gangster, took over the club in 1923 while imprisoned in Sing Sing and changed its name to the Cotton Club. While the club was closed briefly in 1925 for selling liquor, it reopened without trouble from the police. The dancers occasionally performed for Madden in Sing Sing after his return there in 1933.

    The club reproduced the racist imagery of the times, often depicting blacks as savages in exotic jungles or as "•••••••" in the plantation South. The club imposed a more subtle color bar on the chorus girls whom the club presented in skimpy outfits: they were expected to be "tall, tan, and terrific", which meant that they had to be at least 5 feet 6 inches tall, light skinned, and under twenty-one years of age. Ellington was expected to write "jungle music" for an audience of whites.

    Nonetheless, the club also helped launch the careers of Fletcher Henderson, who led the first band that played there in 1923 and Ellington, whose orchestra was the house band there from 1927 to 1931. The club not only gave Ellington national exposure through radio broadcasts originating there, but enabled him to develop his repertoire while composing not only the dance tunes for the shows, but also the overtures, transitions, accompaniments, and "jungle" effects that gave him the freedom to experiment with orchestral colours and arrangements that touring bands rarely had. Ellington recorded over 100 compositions during this era, while building the group that he led for nearly fifty years. The club eventually relaxed its policy of excluding black customers slightly in deference to Ellington's request.

    Cab Calloway's orchestra brought its Brown Sugar revue to the club in 1930, replacing Ellington's group after its departure in 1931; Jimmie Lunceford's band replaced Calloway's in 1934, while Ellington, Armstrong, and Calloway returned to perform at the club in later years. The club was also the first show business opportunity for Lena Horne, who began there as a chorus girl at the age of sixteen. Dorothy Dandridge performed there, while Coleman Hawkins and Don Redman played there as part of Henderson's band. Tap dancers Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and the Nicholas Brothers starred there as well.

    The club also drew from white popular culture of the day. Walter Brooks, who had produced the successful Broadway show Shuffle Along, was the nominal owner. Dorothy Fields and Jimmy McHugh, one of the most prominent songwriting teams of the era, and Harold Arlen provided the songs for the revues, one of which, "Blackbirds of 1928", featuring the songs "I Can't Give You Anything But Love" and "Diga Diga Doo", was produced by Lew Leslie on Broadway.

    The club closed in 1936 after the race riot in Harlem the previous year. The club reopened later that year at Broadway and 48th Street, but closed for good in 1940, under pressure from higher rents, changing tastes and a federal investigation into tax evasion by Manhattan nightclub owners.The Cotton Club was reopened in 1978 in Harlem. Its current owner is John Beatty.

    A West Coast branch of the Cotton Club existed in Culver City, California in the late 1920s and early 1930s, featuring performers from the original Cotton Club such as Armstrong, Calloway and Ellington.

    The Cotton Club is also a movie directed by Francis Ford Coppola, which offers a fictionalized history of the club in the context of race relations in the 1930s and the battles between Madden, Dutch Schultz, Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll, Lucky Luciano, and Ellsworth "Bumpy" Johnson. The film was also beset by controversy; one investor was murdered by another investor eager to maintain her stake in what proved to be a money-losing film.
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  9. identity-X

    identity-X No Talent Assclown

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    you plan on doing any contemporary figures?

    *cough* bell hooks *cough*
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  10. BLACKANGEL

    BLACKANGEL Angelic Professor

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    [​IMG]

    Bell Hooks (nee Gloria Watkins) is Distinguished Professor of English at City College in New York. Born in Hopkinsville, Kentucky in 1952, hooks, received her B.A. from Stanford University in 1973, her M.A. in 1976 from the University of Wisconsin and her Ph.D. in 1983 from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

    Although hooks is mainly known as a feminist thinker, her writings cover a broad range of topics on gender, race, teaching and the significance of media for contemporary culture. She strongly believes that these topics cannot be dealt with as separately, but must be understood as being interconnectedness. As an example, she refers to the idea of a "White Supremacist Capitalist Patriarchy" and its interconnectedness, rather than to its more traditionally separated and component parts.

    A passionate scholar, hooks is among the leading public intellectuals of her generation.

    hooks/Watson's use of a pseudonym is intended to honor both her grandmother (whose name she took) and her mother, as well as provide her the opportunity to establish a separate voice from the person Gloria Watson.

    hooks, like Paulo Freire, sees education as the practice of freedom. Profoundly influenced by Freire, she sees his ideas as affirming her "right as a subject in resistance to define reality." (Teaching to Trangress , p. 53).

    For hooks: "teaching is a performative act... that offers the space for change, invention, spontaneous shifts, that can serve as a catalyst drawing out the unique elements in each classroom." (Ibid, p. 11)

    Works by bell hooks

    Hooks, Bell. Ain't I a woman : Black women and feminism. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1981.

    Hooks, Bell. Feminist theory from margin to center. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1984.

    Hooks, Bell. Talking back: thinking feminist, thinking black. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1989.

    Hooks, Bell. Talking back: thinking feminist, thinking black. 1st ed. Toronto, Ont., Canada: Between the Lines, 1989.

    Hooks, Bell. Yearning: race, gender, and cultural politics. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1990.

    Hooks, Bell. Yearning: race, gender, and cultural politics. 1st ed. Toronto, Ont., Canada: Between-the-Lines, 1990.

    Hooks, Bell, and Cornel West. Breaking bread: insurgent Black intellectual life . Boston, MA: South End Press, 1991.

    Hooks, Bell. Black looks: race and representation. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1992.

    Hooks, Bell. Sisters of the yam: black women and self-recovery. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1993.

    *Hooks, Bell. Teaching to transgress: education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.

    Hooks, Bell. Outlaw culture: resisting representations . New York: Routledge, 1994.

    Hooks, Bell. Art on my mind: visual politics. New York: New Press : Distributed by W.W. Norton, 1995.

    Hooks, Bell. Killing rage: ending racism . 1st ed. New York: H. Holt and Co., 1995.

    Hooks, Bell. Bone Black: memories of girlhood. 1st ed. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1996.

    Hooks, Bell. Reel to real: race, sex, and class at the movies . New York, NY: Routledge, 1996.

    Hooks, Bell. Wounds of passion: a writing life. 1st ed. New York: H. Holt, 1997.

    Hooks, Bell, and Christopher Raschka. Happy to be nappy. 1st ed. New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 1999.

    Hooks, Bell. Remembered rapture: the writer at work. 1st ed. New York: Henry Holt, 1999.

    Works About bell hooks

    Florence, Namulundah. Bell Hooks' engaged pedagogy : a transgressive education for critical consciousness Critical studies in education and culture series. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey, 1998.
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  11. KEALYBOY

    KEALYBOY Ignorant is a pedophile

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    this is the sort of idiocy im talking about

    defining yourself as black means u can't complain when society does the same and segregates

    being black is an irrelevanxt of birth, it doesnt make me who i am or u who u r

    how can u complain about being defined as black wen u do it 2 urself with bs misguided movements like this

    fuck u all
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  12. identity-X

    identity-X No Talent Assclown

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    and when you stop defining yourself as balck, you think the rest of the world out there is going to as well?

    who complains about being defined as black anyway?

    what in gods name are you talking about?
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  13. menaz

    menaz Avant Garde

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    Why can't black americans have there own country? Most black americans as retrospective as it might originally seem do believe Africa is their country. I'm not saying Black african americans have a chance at making africa their country once again for the 2nd time before white colonization tookover.

    But What I am saying is Black Americans really want their own country. Might as well just give it to them.

    Infact I think all races should be divided up and placed in there own countries. I believe leaving everyone ethnically alone in isolationism could possibly end racism. You can't accomplish this within deversity.Esepcially within americas dervisty. Black americans deserve a micronation.

    No Huey P. Newton?
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  14. identity-X

    identity-X No Talent Assclown

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    how many countries would there be, menaz?

    divying up the world by "races" would result in a bigger clusterfuck than the war in Iraq.
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  15. reggie_jax

    reggie_jax rapper noyd

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    yay, black history month

    one more year of learning about da nigga dat invented peanut butter
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  16. Leila Night

    Leila Night efrain,you're my one&only

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    Especially considering that race can't be defined on a biological level.

    And which race/ethnic group would be given countries with large deserts without resources and which would end up with forests, oil fields, fresh water, etc.?

    And where do people who consider themselves 'mixed' belong?
    You are who you are, but society always has a say as to who you can be.
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  17. BeEgEe

    BeEgEe El Warm Shot

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    menaz and his opinions
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  18. cock juggler

    cock juggler Double ML=STUD

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    does anyone else think it's fucking lame celebrating the colour of your skin??
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  19. identity-X

    identity-X No Talent Assclown

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    yeah, that would be lame.

    but since this is a celebration of the actions and accomplishments of people who share skin color (which has and continues to affect their lived reality) and NOT skin color in and of itself, then it's not lame...
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  20. BLACKANGEL

    BLACKANGEL Angelic Professor

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    ~ Beginnings - Slaves in Colonial America ~


    The vast majority of Africans brought to the 13 British colonies worked as agricultural laborers; many were brought to the colonies specifically for their experience in rice growing, cattle herding, or river navigation. For example, South Carolina planters drew upon the knowledge of slaves from Senegambia in West Africa to begin cultivating rice, their first major export crop. In the South, slaves grew tobacco in Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina, and rice and indigo in South Carolina and Georgia. In the North, slaves also worked on farms.

    African Americans, slave and free, also worked in a wide variety of occupations. They were household workers, sailors, preachers, accountants, music teachers, medical assistants, blacksmiths, bricklayers, and carpenters, doing virtually any work American society required.

    By 1750 there were nearly 240,000 people of African descent in British North America, fully 20 percent of the population, though they were not evenly distributed. The greatest number of African Americans lived in Virginia, Maryland, and South Carolina because large plantations with many slaves were concentrated in the South. Blacks constituted over 60 percent of the population in South Carolina, over 43 percent in Virginia, and over 30 percent in Maryland, but only about 2 percent in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. In the Northern colonies, enslaved people were much more likely to work in households having only one or a few slaves.
    The first African slaves brought to the English colonies arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. They were captured in Africa and then transported across the Atlantic Ocean. It is estimated that more than 10 million people were brought from Africa to the Americas as slaves.

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    Howard Pyle created this depiction of the 1619 arrival of Virginia's first blacks. Harper's Weekly (1917)
    Virtually all colonies had a small number of free blacks, but in colonial America, only Maryland had a sizeable free black population. Over the generations of enslavement, at least 95 percent of Africans in the United States lived in slavery. But even as early as the 1600s, some gained their freedom by buying themselves or being bought by relatives. Since slavery was inherited through the status of the mother, some blacks became free if they were born to non-slave mothers. Others gained their freedom from bondage for meritorious acts or long competent labor.
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